Scope of Work
Solid Waste Management
Solid Waste Management (SWM) is an organized process of storage, collection, transportation, processing and disposal of solid refuse residuals in an engineered sanitary landfill. It is an integrated process comprising several collection methods, varied transportation equipment, storage, recovery mechanisms for recyclable material, reduction of waste volume and quantity by methods such as composting, waste-to-power and disposal in a designated engineered sanitary landfill.
The selection of a suitable SWM process is driven by the source and quality of waste produced. Solid waste is generated from a number of sources which include households (kitchen and yards), commercial areas (shops, hotels, and restaurants), industries (raw material and packaging), institutions (schools, hospitals, and offices), construction and demolition sites, wild and domesticated animals (carcasses of dead animals, manure), parks (fallen branches, leaves from trees) and streets (sand, silt, clay, concrete, bricks, asphalt, residues from air deposition and dust).
Solid Waste Management is one of the most essential services for maintaining the quality of life in the urban areas and for ensuring better standards of health and sanitation. For maximizing efficiency and effectiveness of this service, it is necessary to tackle this problem systematically by going into all aspects of the ‘Solid Waste Management’ (SWM) and devise cost effective system which may ensure adequate level of SWM services to all class of citizens, and collection, transportation and disposal of waste in an environmentally acceptable manner in terms Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000.
Naya Raipur is being developed as a satellite city to Raipur holding Capital functions of the state of Chhattisgarh. Under the Chhattisgarh Nagar Tatha Gram Vikas Adhiniyam Land Development Rules 1973, the Naya Raipur Development Authority (NRDA) has been formed as a Special Area Development Authority to plan, implement and administer Naya Raipur. The NRDA is already taking the different tasks to develop the city in light of the 74th Constitutional Amendment.
The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India has enacted the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000. These MSW rules are applicable to every municipal authority, making it mandatory for every municipal authority for implementation of these rules and for development of necessary infrastructure for collection, segregation, storage, transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid waste.
To ensure that the city of Naya Raipur conform to the Municipal Solid Waste Rules it is proposed to develop an Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management (IMSWM) for treating and disposing the MSW collected from the city.
Objectives of DPR
This DPR is prepared in accordance with the following specific objectives of the project:
- Understanding population projections in Naya Raipur
- Characterization and quantification of solid waste expected to be generated in the city
- Proposing Solid waste management system covering collection, street sweeping, transportation, transfer stations, waste processing and disposal
- Proposing an institutional structure to handle MSW in Naya Raipur
- Assessing the social and legal aspects related to the project
- Analyzing the financial viability of the project and suggesting a suitable PPP structure
Based on inputs from the above designing a MSW system to meet the requirements of the city and is compliant with MSW Rules 2000.
Case studies should comprise of the following points:
• Total waste generation in the city
• Manure Generation
• Project Cost
• O&M Cost
• Revenue Generation
Solid Waste Management Facility
2. Introduction of Project
The Solid Waste Management facility focuses on three major components of the waste management system which includes collection & transportation, treatment or disposal and closure & post closure care of treatment/disposal facility. The four R’s of solid waste management technologies that are Reduction, Reuse, Recycle, and Recovery. This approach highly encourages reduction of quantity of waste for land filling.
2.1 Need of the Project:
Waste management is an important part of the urban infrastructure as it ensures the protection of the environment and of human health. It is not only a technical environmental issue but also a highly political one. Waste management is closely related to a number of issues such as urban lifestyles, resource consumption pattern, jobs and income levels, and other socio-economic and cultural factors.
Waste prevention and minimization has positive environmental, human health and safety and economic impacts. Implementing a “less is better” concept provides better protection of human health and safety by reducing exposures, generating less demand for disposal on the environment. Less Waste also lowers disposal cost.
Arising quality of life and high rates of resource consumption patterns have had an unintended and negative impact on the urban environment – generation of wastes far beyond the handling capacities of urban governments and agencies. Cities are now grappling with the problems of high volumes of waste, the costs involved, the disposal technologies and methodologies and the impact of wastes on the local and global environment.
But these problems have also provided a window of opportunity for cities to find solutions- involving the community and the private sector, involving innovative technologies and disposal methods, and involving behavioral changes and awareness are rising. These issues have amply demonstrated by good practices from many cities around the world. There is a need for a complete rethinking of “waste”- to analyze if waste is indeed waste.
Solid Waste Managements has two major factors:
Collection & transportation:
During collection stage, the biodegradable, non-biodegradable/inert waste will be collected separately and segregated properly by Municipal Corporation. Different containers will be used for storage of such wastes with signage. Such a waste is transported safely to respective plants by Municipal Corporation for further processing.
Biodegradable waste will be processed for further composting at composting plant whereas; non-biodegradable/inert waste will be hand over to the authorized dealers after segregation and processing for recycling or landfilling.
Treatment & disposal:
The waste will first be segregated to Biodegradable waste, non-biodegradable waste and inert waste. Biodegradable waste will be processed through Organic Waste Converter and used as manure. And non-biodegradable/inert waste would be hand over to authorize vendor.
The broad objectives of this report are to determine a technically and economically viable waste management project for a phased implementation to meet the requirements effective solid waste management. Following are the specific objectives:
- To design system of segregation and treatment of food/Biodegradable waste separately at the source of generation of waste on decentralized way.
- To design systems to eliminate the age old practice of throwing garbage on the streets or outside the dustbins causing nuisance to the people and posing a threat to the health of the community at large
- To modernize system of wastage storage depots which may synchronize with the system of primary collection as well as transportation of waste and simultaneously eliminate manual loading of the waste into open transportation vehicles;
- To promote processing of waste for deriving bioorganic fertilizer, reduce quantity of waste going to landfill site; derive income from the processing of waste and help Agricultural production.
- To ensure safe and scientific disposal of waste.
2.3 Types of Municipal Solid Waste
Waste can be classified in several ways a typical classification:
2.3.1 Biodegradable Waste:
Bio degradable is capable of being broken down (decomposed) rapidly by the action of microorganisms. Biodegradable substances include food scraps, cotton, wool, wood, human and animal waste, manufactured products based on natural materials (such as paper and vegetable-oil based soaps.
Types of Biodegradable waste
• Kitchen Waste
• Food Waste
• Horticulture Waste
2.3.2 Non Bio degradable Waste:
Non-Biodegradable or recyclable waste is non-organic material that can’t be broken down easily by natural processes. Recyclables are items and materials bound for the waste stream that can be converted into a reusable material. Recyclables found in commercial buildings such as paper, cardboard, beverage and food containers, metal and glass.
Types of Non-Biodegradable waste
• Plastics (polyethylene, nylon, rayon, polyester, Lexan, PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), Dacron)
• Metals (iron, platinum, steel, tin, aluminum, lead, silver, gold, arsenic, bismuth, zinc, chromium)
• Packaging materials
• Foams (cups, coolers)
• Circuit boards/silicon based materials
2.3.3 Inert waste:
Inert waste is refuge, reject, or residue material that does not undergo biological, chemical, physical, or radiological transformation. Inert waste includes building (demolition) waste, gravel, sand, and stone but not any biodegradable, hazardous, or green (botanical) material.
Types of Inert waste
• Concrete Waste
• Tiles and ceramics
2.3.4 Electronic waste:
E-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices. Used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling or disposal are also considered as e-waste.
Types of Electronic waste
• Mobile phones
• Air conditioners
2.3.5 Household Hazardous waste:
Hazardous waste is waste that is dangerous or potentially harmful to our health or the environment. Hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, gases, or sludges. They can be discarded commercial products, like cleaning fluids or pesticides, or the by-products of manufacturing processes.
Types of Household hazardous waste:
• Paints and solvents
• Automotive wastes (used motor oil, antifreeze, etc.)
• Pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, etc.)
• Mercury-containing wastes (thermometers, switches, fluorescent lighting, etc.)
• Electronics (computers, televisions, cell phones)
• Aerosols / Propane cylinders
• Caustics / Cleaning agents
• Refrigerant-containing appliances
• Some specialty Batteries (e.g. lithium, nickel cadmium, or button cell batteries)
2.4 Components of Municipal Solid Waste Management
Waste will be collected on door to door basis by Municipal Corporation. This waste will be brought to OWC plant place by Municipal Corporation where segregation can be done. Each person collecting waste has to be given safety gloves and related personal protective equipment (PPE). Garbage bins is used to collect waste.
Waste is now segregated to bio degradable, non-bio degradable and inert waste. Segregation is done by local nearby worker who will be trained about segregation.
Transport of waste will be done by Municipal Corporation to respective processing plant. Segregated waste will go their respective place for further process. Biodegradable waste goes for composting, non-biodegradable waste goes for recycling and remaining waste goes for land filling.
2.4.4 TREATMENT AND PROCESS
- Bio degradable waste – Bio degradable waste will be convert into organic manure by using organic waste converter technology.
- Non-biodegradable waste- Non biodegradable waste will be segregated and then send to recyclers after shredding and bailing.
- Insert waste- Inert waste will go for land filling.
Fig 2.1 Schematic representation of Solid Waste Management Waste
2.5 Technology for Biodegradable Waste Management
Various technologies are used for management of Biodegradable waste such as
1. Batch Composting
2. Composting with help of external heaters
3. In-Vessel composting without any external heaters
We will be converting biodegradable waste into manure by using Organic waste converter technology/ In-Vessel composting technology without using any external heaters. The output from same will be used as manure for gardening.
3. Organic Waste Converter (Kwik Composter)
(In-Vessel composting without any external heaters)
3.1 Process description for Organic Waste Converter system (OWC) – Kwik Composter
“Organic waste Converter” (OWC) which converts the Organic Waste into odour free homogenized coarse powder in 13 days.
The Segregated Organic Waste is bio-mechanically treated in the OWC machine. It homogenizes organic waste with appropriate bio-culture and organic media. The coarse wastes such as garden pruning, bones etc. are shredded prior to feeding into OWC machine. The output from OWC machine is raw compost having uniform colored and soil structured coarse powder, free of bad odour. The leachate is controlled during homogenization process in OWC. The OWC operates in continuous composting process & having 18 days curing period.
The matured compost can be utilized for in-house gardening, landscaping etc.
3.2 Procedure for Composting Biodegradable Waste in OWC:
The Segregated Organic Waste is bio-mechanically treated in the OWC machine. It homogenizes organic waste with appropriate bio-culture and organic media. The coarse wastes such as garden pruning, bones etc. are shredded prior to feeding into OWC machine. The output from OWC machine is raw compost having uniform colored and soil structured coarse powder, free of bad odour. The leachate is controlled during homogenization process in OWC.
The OWC operates in continuous cycle of about 18 days. The Homogenized odour free output will be used for gardening. The segregated biodegradable waste will be composted by using Organic waste converter machine.
3.3 OWC Introduction
OWC showcases the concept of “Garbage to Garden” by integrating activities such as
• Organic Waste Bio-conversion into Compost using decentralized solution
• Compost use for urban landscaping.
3.4 The Objectives of OWC Composting Machine
• Facilitates stakeholders’ networking to encourage segregation, efficient composting & recycling at source.
• Minimizes ill-effects of garbage
• Minimizes environment pollution resulting from long haulage of MSW to landfill site.
• Reduces recurring need for landfill space.
• Sensitized need for waste minimization through introduction of waste services on ‘pay & use’ or ‘polluters to pay’ principles.
Fig 3.1 Appearance Organic Waste Converter Machine (Kwik Composter) & Output
Table 3.1 Process of waste conversion
Table 3.2 Working of Organic Waste Converter Machine (Kwik Composter)